Preoperative localisation studies are essential for parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. If the location of abnormal parathyroid glands cannot be identified through non-invasive studies, parathyroid venous sampling (PVS) may be employed. In this study, we evaluated the utility of preoperative PVS in parathyroid surgery. Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent preoperative PVS at Severance Hospital between January 2015 and June 2020 were identified. Patients for whom the results of non-invasive imaging studies were inconsistent or negative underwent PVS. The results of PVS were compared with operative findings and pathologic results. For 14 patients, the results of preoperative ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were negative; for 20 patients, either the result of only one test was positive, or the results of the two tests were inconsistent. With respect to the lateralisation of diseased adenoma, the results of PVS and pathological examination were inconsistent only for one patient in either group (total: 2/34 patients). This study showed that PVS could be used effectively for preoperative localisation in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in whom the location of diseased parathyroid glands cannot be determined through non-invasive image studies.
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