Diagnoses based on oral fluid biomarkers have been introduced to overcome limitations of periodontal probe-based diagnoses. Diagnostic ability of certain biomarkers for periodontitis have been identified and widely studied, however, such studies targeting gingivitis is scarce. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the efficacies and accuracies of eight biomarkers in diagnosing gingivitis with the aid of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were examined in 100 participants. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected using paper points, and whole-saliva samples were collected using cotton roll. Samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for the different biomarkers. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, lactoferrin, cystatin C, myeloperoxidase (MPO), platelet-activating factor, cathepsin B, and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen were analyzed. MPO and MMP-8 levels in saliva were strongly correlated with gingivitis, with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.399 and 0.217, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was largest for MMP-8, at 0.814, followed by values of 0.793 and 0.777 for MPO and MMP- 9, respectively. The clinical parameters of GI and PI showed strong correlations and large AUC values, whereas PD and CAL did not. MMP-8 and MPO were found to be effective for diagnosing gingivitis. Further investigations based on the results of this study may identify clinically useful biomarkers for the accurate and early detection of gingivitis.
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