Observation of tunable band gap and anisotropic Dirac semimetal state in black phosphorus

Jimin Kim, Seung Su Baik, Sae Hee Ryu, Yeongsup Sohn, Soohyung Park, Byeong Gyu Park, Jonathan Denlinger, Yeonjin Yi, Hyoung Joon Choi, Keun Su Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

732 Citations (Scopus)


Black phosphorus consists of stacked layers of phosphorene, a two-dimensional semiconductor with promising device characteristics. We report the realization of a widely tunable band gap in few-layer black phosphorus doped with potassium using an in situ surface doping technique. Through band structure measurements and calculations, we demonstrate that a vertical electric field from dopants modulates the band gap, owing to the giant Stark effect, and tunes the material from a moderate-gap semiconductor to a band-inverted semimetal. At the critical field of this band inversion, the material becomes a Dirac semimetal with anisotropic dispersion, linear in armchair and quadratic in zigzag directions. The tunable band structure of black phosphorus may allow great flexibility in design and optimization of electronic and optoelectronic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-726
Number of pages4
Issue number6249
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 14

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© 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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