Objectively measured far vision impairment and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥ 65 years from six low- and middle-income countries

Lee Smith, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez, Louis Jacob, Yvonne Barnett, Shahina Pardhan, Nicola Veronese, Pinar Soysal, Mark A. Tully, Trish Gorely, Jae Il Shin, Ai Koyanagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: There are currently no studies on visual impairment and sarcopenia. We investigated the cross-sectional association between objectively measured far vision impairment and sarcopenia in a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 65 years and over from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Cross-sectional, community-based data from the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Far vision acuity was measured using the tumbling E LogMAR chart and classified as: no vision impairment (6/12 or better); mild vision impairment (6/18 or better but worse than 6/12); moderate vision impairment (6/60 or better but worse than 6/18); severe vision impairment (worse than 6/60). Sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle mass and either a slow gait speed or a weak handgrip strength. Associations were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Fourteen thousand five hundred and eighty five individuals aged ≥ 65 years were included in the analysis [mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.5) years; 54.1% females]. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, compared to those with no vision impairment, the OR (95% CI) for sarcopenia in those with mild, moderate, and severe vision impairment were 1.10 (0.87–1.40), 1.69 (1.25–2.27), and 3.38 (1.69–6.77), respectively. The estimates for females and males were similar. Conclusions: The odds for sarcopenia increased with increasing severity of far vision impairment among older people in LMICs. The mere co-occurrence of these conditions is concerning, and it may be prudent to implement interventions to address/prevent sarcopenia in those with far vision impairment through the promotion of physical activity and appropriate nutrition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2995-3003
Number of pages9
JournalAging Clinical and Experimental Research
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This paper uses data from WHO’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). SAGE is supported by the US. National Institute on Aging through Interagency Agreements OGHA 04034785, YA1323–08-CN-0020, Y1-AG-1005-01 and through research Grants R01-AG034479 and R21-AG034263.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ageing
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


Dive into the research topics of 'Objectively measured far vision impairment and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥ 65 years from six low- and middle-income countries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this