Non-toxic ethanol based particulate inks for low temperature processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells without S/Se treatment

Kyoohee Woo, Kyujin Kim, Zhaoyang Zhong, Inhyuk Kim, Yunjung Oh, Sunho Jeong, Jooho Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Solution processing for kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin-film solar cells has the potential to provide economical and large-scale implementation of highly efficient photovoltaics. However, to date, post-sulfurization/selenization at high temperatures (500-550 °C) or highly toxic solvents have generally been involved in most fabrication routes, resulting in problems such as phase separation, chalcogen loss (or Sn loss), and safety issues. In this paper, an ethanol solvent-based precursor ink is newly designed for fabricating a CZTSSe absorber layer at much lower temperatures (as low as 400 °C) without a post-sulfurization/selenization process. The precursor ink is composed of a commercially available powder mixture of easily decomposable copper(II) formate, Zn, Sn, S, and Se, which allow us to fabricate a CZTSSe film with large grains (1-1.5 μm) and a reasonable band gap (~1.1 eV). It is found that the formation of a homogeneous CZTSSe phase could be effectively promoted by rapid annealing, suggesting that the ramping rate is a critical factor to obtaining high quality absorber layer. Our CZTSSe device (rapidly annealed at 400 °C) exhibits an efficiency of 4.67% under AM 1.5 illumination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)362-368
Number of pages7
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (no. 2012R1A3A2026417 ). It was also partially supported the third Stage of Brain Korea 21 Plus Project.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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