Non-laminated growth of chlorine-doped zinc oxide films by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

Yong June Choi, Kyung Mun Kang, Hong Sub Lee, Hyung Ho Park

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20 Citations (Scopus)


Chlorine doping in a ZnO matrix to a concentration of 0.65 ± 0.05 at% was accomplished via atomic layer deposition using a home-made chlorine source at a low deposition temperature of 140°C. Structural and morphological properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The introduction of chlorine into the ZnO matrix resulted in significant grain growth reorientation due to chlorine doping in the oxygen sites of ZnO. Cl- ions preferentially occupied the substitutional O- ion site and O vacancies, and the preferential growth in the {100} planes changed to growth in the {002} planes along the longitudinal direction of the hexagonal wurtzite structure as a function of the Cl doping levels. This important phenomenon was explained by a passivation effect, resulting from the chlorine doping mechanism; this was elucidated using transmission electron microscopy. The optical transmittances of the undoped ZnO and ZnO:Cl films were approximately the same (88%), but the optical band gap was increased by the introduction of a Cl dopant in ZnO due to the Burstein-Moss effect. The lowest resistivity of ZnO:Cl was 1.215 × 10-2 Ω cm, and the corresponding carrier concentration and mobility were 5.715 × 1019 cm-3 and 31.81 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Finally, the calculated doping efficiency of chlorine in ZnO was 10.8%, which was higher than that of aluminum-doped ZnO, even though the deposition temperature was very low when applied to plastic substrates due to the non-laminated growth of ZnO:Cl films.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8336-8343
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue number32
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jul 7

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Chemistry


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