Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor with anti-Parkinsonian effects, but it is metabolized to amphetamines. Since another MAO-B inhibitor N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE) is not metabolized to amphetamines, we examined whether MPPE induces behavioral side effects and whether MPPE affects dopaminergic toxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Multiple doses of MPPE (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) did not show any significant locomotor activity and conditioned place preference, whereas selegiline (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) significantly increased these behavioral side effects. Treatment with MPPE resulted in significant attenuations against decreases in mitochondrial complex I activity, mitochondrial Mn-SOD activity, and expression induced by MPTP in the striatum of mice. Consistently, MPPE significantly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and MPPE-mediated antioxidant activity appeared to be more pronounced in mitochondrial-fraction than in cytosolic-fraction. Because MPTP promoted mitochondrial p53 translocation and p53/Bcl-xL interaction, it was also examined whether mitochondrial p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ attenuates MPTP neurotoxicity. MPPE, selegiline, or pifithrin-μ significantly attenuated mitochondrial p53/Bcl-xL interaction, impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytosolic cytochrome c release, and cleaved caspase-3 in wild-type mice. Subsequently, these compounds significantly ameliorated MPTP-induced motor impairments. Neuroprotective effects of MPPE appeared to be more prominent than those of selegiline. MPPE or selegiline did not show any additional protective effects against the attenuation by p53 gene knockout, suggesting that p53 gene is a critical target for these compounds. Our results suggest that MPPE possesses anti-Parkinsonian potentials with guaranteed behavioral safety and that the underlying mechanism of MPPE requires inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial translocation of p53, and pro-apoptotic process.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience