Mushrooms are good dietary sources of important vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds which may be important in the prevention of chronic diseases. However, studies have not prospectively evaluated the potential health effects of mushrooms with respect to major cardiometabolic diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the association of mushroom consumption with major cardiometabolic diseases and mediating biomarkers in 2 large prospective US cohorts. Methods: We followed 67,139 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012) and 43,541 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012) who were free of chronic diseases. Mushroom consumption was assessed at baseline through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were collected in subpopulations of the 2 cohorts. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), associated with mushroom consumption. Results: We identified total 11,894 CVD (7,616 CHD; 4,278 stroke), and 10,206 T2D cases in >2 million person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable-adjusted analysis, participants who consumed ≥5 servings of mushrooms per week had no significantly different risk of total CVD (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.14), CHD (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.16), stroke (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.25), or T2D (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.16) than participants who consumed mushrooms <1 time/mo. We consistently found no association between mushroom consumption and the aforementioned cardiometabolic diseases, in subgroups of sex, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Moreover, mushroom consumption was not associated with plasma biomarkers of lipids, insulin, and inflammation. Conclusions: We found no association of mushroom consumption with biomarkers and risks of CVD and T2D in US adults. More large prospective cohort studies are warranted to investigate this association in other racial/ethnic groups.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by grants from the National Institute of Health (UM1 CA186107, R01 HL034594, R01 HL088521, UM1 CA167552, R01 HL035464, and DK058845) and a grant from Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL). HAL had no role in study planning, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of the findings, drafting of the manuscript, or decisions regarding where or when to publish study results.
Copyright © American Society for Nutrition 2019.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics