Multilevel analysis of civic engagement and effectiveness of energy transition policy in seoul: The seoul eco-mileage program

Jaewan Kim, Tae Yong Jung, Yong Gun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The Seoul Eco-mileage Program is a representative project of the One Less Nuclear Power Plant (OLNPP) scheme, which addresses the energy transition policy of Seoul aiming to reduce CO2 emissions. Unlike other governmental projects, the success of this program requires the direct participation of citizens. This study investigates the influence of civic engagement in participant towns (Level 1: 423 administrative towns) and districts (Level 2: 25 administrative districts) on CO2 emissions reduction (kg CO2/membership) throughout 2017 in Seoul via multilevel modeling. Our results show that town-level civic engagement, as measured by voter turnout, is positively correlated with the performance of the Eco-mileage Program. Moreover, when civic engagement factors (social trust, volunteer activities, and citizen participation) at Level 1 interact with Level 2 factors (housing prices, motivation of district leaders, and energy-saving practices) in each district, we observed cross-level interactive effects on CO2 reduction. Among Level 2 factors, the representative institutional capacities, such as financial independence and ordinance, showed positive correlations with the performance efficacy of the energy transition policy of Seoul.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9905
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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