Current clinical methods for cancer diagnosis and therapy have limitations, although survival periods are increasing as medical technologies develop. In most cancer cases, patient survival is closely related to cancer stage. Late-stage cancer after metastasis is very challenging to cure because current surgical removal of cancer is not precise enough and significantly affects bystander normal tissues. Moreover, the subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy affect not only malignant tumors, but also healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies for cancer treatment have the clear objective of solving these issues. Nanoparticles have been developed to more accurately differentiate early-stage malignant tumors and to treat only the tumors while dramatically minimizing side effects. In this review, we focus on recent chitosan-based nanoparticles developed with the goal of accurate cancer imaging and effective treatment. Regarding imaging applications, we review optical and magnetic resonance cancer imaging in particular. Regarding cancer treatments, we review various therapeutic methods that use chitosan-based nanoparticles, including chemo-, gene, photothermal, photodynamic and magnetic therapies.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry