Metallic impurities in black phosphorus nanoflakes prepared by different synthetic routes

Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Zdeněk Sofer, David Sedmidubský, Jan Luxa, Bahareh Kherzi, Martin Pumera

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25 Citations (Scopus)


The allotropes of elementary phosphorus materials, such as black phosphorus and its single layer form phosphorene have recently regained scientific attention due to their outstanding properties suitable for applications in electronics, optical devices, and energy applications. As with many other materials, there is a fundamental question of the presence of impurities in these materials and their influence on the properties. Such impurities are expected to dramatically influence the electronic and electrochemical properties of black phosphorus in a way similar to the way they do in the case of graphene. Here, we synthesize black phosphorus from commercially available red phosphorus via different techniques. We utilize high-pressure conversion of red phosphorus to black phosphorus and vapor phase growth of black phosphorus using a gold/tin alloy-like solvent for red phosphorus. We show that both methods lead to black phosphorus containing a large number of metallic impurities. We show that the classical tin-based method for preparing black phosphorus adds a significant amount of tin and that the metallic impurities present have an observable effect on the electrochemical properties of black phosphorus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1540-1546
Number of pages7
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 21

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M. P. thanks the Tier 1 fund (01/13). Z. S., D. S. and J. L. were supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GACR No. 15-09001S) and by the specific university research (MSMT No. 20-SVV/2017). This work was performed with the financial support from the Neuron Foundation for science support. This work was supported by the project Advanced Functional Nanorobots (Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000444 financed by the EFRR).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)


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