Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances

Chung Ju Hwang, Ji Soo Shin, Jung Yul Cha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 ± 0.15, 37°C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 × .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco’s copper NiTi and Tomy’s Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500°C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-391
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, in 2000.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthodontics


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