Maternal ApoE genotype and risk of recurrent pregnancy loss: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis

Sarah Cargnin, Francesca Agnusdei, Jae Il Shin, Salvatore Terrazzino

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: In order to clarify the role of the maternal apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), we herein performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to reevaluate the evidence on this association. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane library up to September 2022. Methodological study quality was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale and the credibility of significant pooled odds ratios (ORs) was estimated by the false positive report probability and the Bayesian false discovery probability. Results: Twelve studies published from 2009 to 2022 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the overall analysis, the ε4 allele was found to confer an increased risk of RPL compared to the ε3 allele (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.00–2.55, p = 0.049) and women carrying the ApoE ε4 allele displayed a higher risk of RPL compared with those carrying the ε2 and ε3 alleles (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06–2.87, p = 0.028). Subgroup analysis based on subjects’ ethnicity revealed that these associations were restricted to the Asian population (ε4 allele vs. ε3 allele, OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.79–19.61, p = 0.004; ε4 allele carriers vs. carriers of ε2 and ε3 alleles, OR 8.42, 95% CI 1.47–48.12, p = 0.017). None of the associations detected were found to be noteworthy under false positive report probability or Bayesian false discovery probability at a prior probability of 0.001. Conclusions: This updated meta-analysis highlights an association between maternal ApoE genotype and RPL risk in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Further case–control studies are warranted in women of Asian ancestry to exclude the possibility of false-positive findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3467
JournalJournal of Gene Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Drug Discovery
  • Genetics(clinical)


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