Massively parallel direct writing of nanoapertures using multi-optical probes and super-resolution near-fields

Changsu Park, Soobin Hwang, Donghyun Kim, Nahyun Won, Runjia Han, Seonghyeon Jeon, Wooyoung Shim, Jiseok Lim, Chulmin Joo, Shinill Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Laser direct-writing enables micro and nanoscale patterning, and is thus widely used for cutting-edge research and industrial applications. Various nanolithography methods, such as near-field, plasmonic, and scanning-probe lithography, are gaining increasing attention because they enable fabrication of high-resolution nanopatterns that are much smaller than the wavelength of light. However, conventional methods are limited by low throughput and scalability, and tend to use electron beams or focused-ion beams to create nanostructures. In this study, we developed a procedure for massively parallel direct writing of nanoapertures using a multi-optical probe system and super-resolution near-fields. A glass micro-Fresnel zone plate array, which is an ultra-precision far-field optical system, was designed and fabricated as the multi-optical probe system. As a chalcogenide phase-change material (PCM), multiple layers of Sb65Se35 were used to generate the super-resolution near-field effect. A nanoaperture was fabricated through direct laser writing on a large-area (200 × 200 mm2) multi-layered PCM. A photoresist nanopattern was fabricated on an 8-inch wafer via near-field nanolithography using the developed nanoaperture and an i-line commercial exposure system. Unlike other methods, this technique allows high-throughput large-area nanolithography and overcomes the gap-control issue between the probe array and the patterning surface.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101
JournalMicrosystems and Nanoengineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (2015R1A5A1037668)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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