Mandibular vertical growth deficiency after botulinum-induced hypotrophy of masticatory closing muscles in juvenile nonhuman primates

Hak Jin Kim, Hye Jin Tak, Joo Won Moon, Sang Hoon Kang, Seong Taek Kim, Jinquan He, Zhenguo Piao, Sang Hwy Lee

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory muscular hypotrophy and mandibular growth in juvenile nonhuman primates (cynolmolgus monkeys, Macaca fasicularis). We hypothesized that botulinum toxin (BTX)-induced neuro-muscular junctional block and its resultant hypotrophy of masticatory muscles would produce mandibular growth disturbances in size and shape. Ten male cynomolgus monkeys were divided into three groups: group I (control; n = 3), group II (unilateral BTX; n = 4), and group III (bilateral BTX; n = 3). The unilateral or bilateral muscular hypotrophy of major masticatory closing muscles was induced by synchronous BTX application to masseter, medial pterygoid, and temporal muscle. Mandibular growth was tracked by linear, angular, area and volume measurements using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography imaging before BTX treatment and after 3 and 6 months. After unilateral hypotrophy of masticatory muscles in group II, vertical growth deficiency was prominent on the BTX side, with compensatory overgrowth on the control side. The bilateral muscular hypotrophy in group III also showed smaller ramal height and width than that of control (group I) and control side (group II). Moreover, ramal sagittal angles (posterior tilt) increased on the BTX side of both groups II and III, but coronal angles (lateral tilt) did so on the BTX side of group II, resulting in asymmetry. The results confirmed our hypothesis that functional activity of masticatory closing muscles is closely related to mandibular growth in size and shape of juvenile nonhuman primates. In addition, the focused growth disturbances on the ramal height and posterior-lateral tilt suggested the possible role of masticatory closing muscles for ramal vertical and angular growth vector of the mandible.

Original languageEnglish
Article number496
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Issue numberAPR
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF-2017R1A2B4005319).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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