Species identification by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a routine diagnostic process for infectious diseases in current clinical settings. The rapid, low-cost, and simple to conduct methodology is expanding its application in clinical microbiology laboratories to diagnose the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in mi-croorganisms. Primarily, antimicrobial susceptibility testing is able to be carried out either by com-paring the area under curve of MALDI spectra of bacteria grown in media with antimicrobial drugs or by identifying the shift peaks of bacteria grown in media including13C isotope with antimicrobial drugs. Secondly, the antimicrobial resistance is able to be determined through identifying (i) the antimicrobial-resistant clonal groups based on the fingerprints of the clone, (ii) the shift peak of the modified antimicrobial drug, which is inactivated by the resistance determinant, (iii) the shift peak of the modified antimicrobial target, (iv) the peak specific for the antimicrobial determinant, and (v) the biomarkers that are coproduced proteins with AMR determinants. This review aims to present the current usage of the MALDI-TOF MS technique for diagnosing antimicrobial resistance in bac-teria, varied approaches for AMR diagnostics using the methodology, and the future applications of the methods for the accurate and rapid identification of AMR in infection-causing bacterial path-ogens.
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© 2021 by the authors. Li-censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)