Levamisole in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: Clinical efficacy and pathophysiological aspects

Anne K. Mühlig, Jun Young Lee, Markus J. Kemper, Andreas Kronbichler, Jae Won Yang, Jiwon M. Lee, Jae Il Shin, Jun Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common pediatric glomerular diseases. Unfortunately, it follows a relapsing and remitting course in the majority of cases, with 50% of all cases relapsing once or even more often. Most children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome respond initially to steroid therapy, nevertheless repeated courses for patients with relapses induce significant steroid toxicity. Patients with frequent relapses or steroid dependency thus require alternative treatment, such as cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, levamisole, or rituximab. To reduce the relapse rate, several drugs have been used. Among these, levamisole has been considered the least toxic and least expensive therapy. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) showed that levamisole is effective in reducing the relapse risk in steroid sensitive forms of nephrotic syndrome with a low frequency of side effects. Levamisole is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative with immune-modulatory properties. In this article, we review recent data from randomized trials and observational studies to assess the efficacy of levamisole in frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number860
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Levamisole in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: Clinical efficacy and pathophysiological aspects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this