Investigation of optimal follower load path generated by trunk muscle coordination

Kyungsoo Kim, Yoon Hyuk Kim, Su Kyoung Lee

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20 Citations (Scopus)


It has been reported that the center of rotation of each vertebral body is located posterior to the vertebral body center. Moreover, it has been suggested that an optimized follower load (FL) acts posterior to the vertebral body center. However, the optimal position of the FL with respect to typical biomechanical characteristics regarding spinal stabilization, such as joint compressive force, shear force, joint moment, and muscle stress, has not been studied. A variation in the center of rotation of each vertebra was formulated in a three-dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine with 117 pairs of trunk muscles. Then, the optimal translation of the FL path connecting the centers of rotations was estimated by solving the optimization problem that was to simultaneously minimize the compressive forces, the shear forces, and the joint moments or to minimize the cubic muscle stresses. An upright neutral standing position and a standing position with 200. N in both hands were considered. The FL path moved posterior, regardless of the optimization criteria and loading conditions. The FL path moved 5.0 and 7.8. mm posterior in upright standing and 4.1. mm and 7.0. mm posterior in standing with 200. N in hands for each optimization scheme. In addition, it was presented that the optimal FL path may have advantages in comparison to the body center FL path. The present techniques may be important in understanding the spine stabilization function of the trunk muscles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1614-1617
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2011 May 17

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( 2010-0005167 ), National Agenda Project (NAP) funded by the Korea Research Council of Fundamental Science & Technology ( P-09-JC-LU63-C01 ), and the research fund for Health and Medical Technology Research and Development projects of the Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affair, Korea (No. A084152).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation


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