Indoor positioning technologies without offline fingerprinting map: A survey

Beakcheol Jang, Hyunjung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Citations (Scopus)


Fingerprint-based wireless indoor positioning approaches are widely used for location-based services because wireless signals, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, are currently pervasive in indoor spaces. The working principle of fingerprinting technology is to collect the fingerprints from an indoor environment, such as a room or a building, in advance, create a fingerprint map, and use this map to estimate the user’s current location. The fingerprinting technology is associated with a high level of accuracy and reliability. However, the fingerprint map must be entirely re-created, not only when the Wi-Fi access points are added, modified, or removed, but also when the interior features, such as walls or even furniture, are changed, owing to the nature of the wireless signals. Many researchers have realized the problems in the fingerprinting technology and are conducting studies to address them. In this paper, we review the indoor positioning technologies that do not require the construction of offline fingerprint maps. We categorize them into simultaneous localization and mapping; inter/extrapolation; and crowdsourcing-based technologies, and describe their algorithms and characteristics, including advantages and disadvantages. We compare them in terms of our own parameters: accuracy, calculation time, versatility, robustness, security, and participation. Finally, we present the future research direction of the indoor positioning techniques. We believe that this paper provides valuable information on recent indoor localization technologies without offline fingerprinting map construction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8451859
Pages (from-to)508-525
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Indoor positioning technologies without offline fingerprinting map: A survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this