Increased in-shoe lateral plantar pressures with chronic ankle instability

Heather Schmidt, Lindsay D. Sauer, Sae Yong Lee, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel

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28 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Previous plantar pressure research found increased loads and slower loading response on the lateral aspect of the foot during gait with chronic ankle instability compared to healthy controls. The studies had subjects walking barefoot over a pressure mat and results have not been confirmed with an in-shoe plantar pressure system. Our purpose was to report in-shoe plantar pressure measures for chronic ankle instability subjects compared to healthy controls. Methods: Forty-nine subjects volunteered (25 healthy controls, 24 chronic ankle instability) for this case-control study. Subjects jogged continuously on a treadmill at 2.68 m/s (6.0 mph) while three trials of ten consecutive steps were recorded. Peak pressure, time-to-peak pressure, pressure-time integral, maximum force, time-to-maximum force, and force-time integral were assessed in nine regions of the foot with the Pedar-x inshoe plantar pressure system (Novel, Munich, Germany). Results: Chronic ankle instability subjects demonstrated a slower loading response in the lateral rearfoot indicated by a longer time-to-peak pressure (16.5% ± 10.1, p = 0.001) and time-to-maximum force (16.8% ± 11.3, p = 0.001) compared to controls (6.5% ± 3.7 and 6.6% ± 5.5, respectively). In the lateral midfoot, ankle instability subjects demonstrated significantly greater maximum force (318.8 N ± 174.5, p = 0.008) and peak pressure (211.4 kPa ± 57.7, p = 0.008) compared to controls (191.6 N ± 74.5 and 161.3 kPa ± 54.7). Additionally, ankle instability subjects demonstrated significantly higher force-time integral (44.1 N/s ± 27.3, p = 0.005) and pressuretime integral (35.0 kPa/s ± 12.0, p = 0.005) compared to controls (23.3 N/s ± 10.9 and 24.5 kPa/s ± 9.5). In the lateral forefoot, ankle instability subjects demonstrated significantly greater maximum force (239.9N ± 81.2, p = 0.004), force-time integral (37.0 N/s ± 14.9, p = 0.003), and time-to-peak pressure (51.1% ± 10.9, p = 0.007) compared to controls (170.6 N ±49.3, 24.3 N/s ± 7.2 and 43.8% ± 4.3). Conclusion: Using an inshoe plantar pressure system, chronic ankle instability subjects had greater plantar pressures and forces in the lateral foot compared to controls during jogging. Clinical Relevance: These findings may have implications in the etiology and treatment of chronic ankle instability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1075-1080
Number of pages6
JournalFoot and Ankle International
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was partially funded by a grant from the National Football League Charities (J.H.).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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