We incorporated zwitterionic materials into light-curable fluoride varnish (LCFV) in order to inhibit biofilm accumulation and prevent dental caries, and the properties of LCFV with three different zwitterionic materials, namely, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA), and sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) polymers (each at a weight percentage of 3%), were compared; unmodified LCFV without any zwitterionic material was used as a control. Material properties including film thickness and degree of conversion (DC) of each type of LCFV were evaluated. In addition, protein-repellent effects and inhibitory effects on Streptococcus mutans adhesion and saliva-derived biofilm accumulation of LCFV were estimated. Finally, the preventive effect of LCFV on enamel demineralization was assessed in vitro on extracted human teeth specimens stored in S. mutans-containing medium. The film thickness of LCFV significantly decreased with the incorporation of zwitterionic materials compared to the control LCFV, whereas there were no significant differences in the DC among all of the LCFV groups. Furthermore, the amount of adsorbed protein, adherent S. mutans colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and saliva-derived biofilm thickness and biomass were all significantly lower for LCFV with incorporated zwitterionic materials compared with the control. All LCFV groups including the control showed certain preventive effects against enamel demineralization during a 14-day immersion in the medium with S. mutans and sucrose, and the depth of demineralization was significantly lower in LCFV with zwitterionic materials than in the control. Thus, the incorporation of zwitterionic materials such as MPC, CBMA, and SBMA appears to confer superior antifouling effects to LCFV.
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