Incorporation of a Metal Oxide Interlayer using a Virus-Templated Assembly for Synthesis of Graphene-Electrode-Based Organic Photovoltaics

Yong Man Lee, Wanjung Kim, Young Hun Kim, Jung Kyu Kim, Ji Ryang Jang, Woo Seok Choe, Jong Hyeok Park, Pil J. Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Transition metal oxide (TMO) thin films have been exploited as interlayers for charge extraction between electrodes and active layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Additionally, graphene-electrode-based OPVs have received considerable attention as a means to enhance device stability. However, the film deposition process of a TMO thin-film layer onto the graphene electrode is highly restricted owing to the hydrophobic nature of the graphene surface; thus, the preparation of the device should rely on a vacuum process that is incompatible with solution processing. In this study, we present a novel means for creating a thin tungsten oxide (WO3) interlayer on a graphene electrode by employing an engineered biotemplate of M13 viruses, whereby nondestructive functionalization of the graphene and uniform synthesis of a WO3 thin interlayer are concurrently achieved. As a result, the incorporated viruslated WO3 interlayer exhibited solar-conversion efficiency that was 20% higher than that of conventional OPVs based on the use of a (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) interlayer. Notably, bilayer-structured OPVs with synergistically integrated WO3/PEDOT:PSS achieved >60% enhancement in device performance. Virus scan: The synthesis and incorporation of a WO3 interlayer into graphene-electrode-based organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is developed by using an engineered biotemplate of M13 viruses. Owing to uniform deposition of the WO3 layer and maintenance of the electrical properties of the graphene electrode, a remarkable increase in the photoconversion efficiency (>20%) relative to that of conventional OPVs can be obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2385-2391
Number of pages7
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jul 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Energy(all)


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