Microneedle (MN) sensing of biomarkers in interstitial fluid (ISF) can overcome the challenges of self-diagnosis of diseases by a patient, such as blood sampling, handling, and measurement analysis. However, the MN sensing technologies still suffer from poor measurement accuracy due to the small amount of target molecules present in ISF, and require multiple steps of ISF extraction, ISF isolation from MN, and measurement with additional equipment. Here, we present a swellable MN-mounted nanogap sensor that can be inserted into the skin tissue, absorb ISF rapidly, and measure biomarkers in situ by amplifying the measurement signals by redox cycling in nanogap electrodes. We demonstrate that the MN-nanogap sensor measures levodopa (LDA), medication for Parkinson disease, down to 100 nM in an aqueous solution, and 1 μM in both the skin-mimicked gelatin phantom and porcine skin.
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© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering