Highly hydrogenated graphene through microwave exfoliation of graphite oxide in hydrogen plasma: Towards electrochemical applications

Alex Yong Sheng Eng, Zdenek Sofer, Petr Šimek, Jiri Kosina, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Hydrogenated graphenes exhibit a variety of properties with potential applications in devices, ranging from a tunable band gap to fluorescence, ferromagnetism, and the storage of hydrogen. We utilize a one-step microwave-irradiation process in hydrogen plasma to create highly hydrogenated graphene from graphite oxides. The procedure serves the dual purposes of deoxygenation and concurrent hydrogenation of the carbon backbone. The effectiveness of the hydrogenation process is investigated on three different graphite oxides (GOs), which are synthesized by using the Staudenmaier, Hofmann, and Hummers methods. A systematic characterization of our hydrogenated graphenes is performed using UV/Vis spectroscopy, SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), combustible elemental analysis, and electrical conductivity measurements. The highest hydrogenation extent is observed in hydrogenated graphene produced from the Hummers-method GO, with a hydrogen content of 19 atomic % in the final product. In terms of the removal of oxygen groups, microwave exfoliation yields graphenes with very similar oxygen contents despite differences in their parent GOs. In addition, we examine the prospective application of hydrogenated graphenes as electrochemical transducers through a cyclic voltammetry (CV) study. The highly hydrogenated graphenes exhibit fast heterogeneous electron-transfer rates, suggestive of their suitability for electrochemical applications in electrodes, supercapacitors, batteries, and sensors. Glowing graphane: The reduction and hydrogenation of graphenes through graphite oxide exfoliation in microwave hydrogen plasma is investigated (see figure). The method is seen to produce reduced graphenes that exhibit similarities in morphology, defect density, and oxygen contents to thermally reduced graphenes. These highly hydrogenated graphenes exhibit fast heterogeneous electron transfer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15583-15592
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Issue number46
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Nov 11

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry


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