Hetero-Nanonet Rechargeable Paper Batteries: Toward Ultrahigh Energy Density and Origami Foldability

Sun Young Lee, Sung Ju Cho, Keun Ho Choi, Jong Tae Yoo, Jeong Hun Kim, Yong Hyeok Lee, Sang Jin Chun, Sang Bum Park, Don Ha Choi, Qinglin Wu, Sang Young Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)


Forthcoming smart energy era is in strong pursuit of full-fledged rechargeable power sources with reliable electrochemical performances and shape versatility. Here, as a naturally abundant/environmentally friendly cellulose-mediated cell architecture strategy to address this challenging issue, a new class of hetero-nanonet (HN) paper batteries based on 1D building blocks of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is demonstrated. The HN paper batteries consist of CNF/MWNT-intermingled heteronets embracing electrode active powders (CM electrodes) and microporous CNF separator membranes. The CNF/MWNT heteronet-mediated material/structural uniqueness enables the construction of 3D bicontinuous electron/ion transport pathways in the CM electrodes, thus facilitating electrochemical reaction kinetics. Furthermore, the metallic current collectors-free, CNF/MWNT heteronet architecture allows multiple stacking of CM electrodes in series, eventually leading to user-tailored, ultrathick (i.e., high-mass loading) electrodes far beyond those accessible with conventional battery technologies. Notably, the HN battery (multistacked LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (cathode)/multistacked graphite (anode)) provides exceptionally high-energy density (=226 Wh kg-1 per cell at 400 W kg-1 per cell), which surpasses the target value (=200 Wh kg-1 at 400 W kg-1) of long-range (=300 miles) electric vehicle batteries. In addition, the heteronet-enabled mechanical compliance of CM electrodes, in combination with readily deformable CNF separators, allows the fabrication of paper crane batteries via origami folding technique. CNFs/CNTs-based hetero-nanonet paper batteries are presented as a 1D material-mediated cell architecture strategy to enable ultrahigh energy density and shape versatility far beyond those achievable with conventional battery technologies. Owing to the 3D bicontinuous electron/ion transport pathways and exceptional mechanical compliance, the hetero-nanonet paper batteries provide unprecedented improvements in the electrochemical reaction kinetics, energy density, and origami foldability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6029-6040
Number of pages12
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number38
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrochemistry
  • Biomaterials


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