Glutamine deprivation induces interleukin-8 expression in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts

Min Hyun Kim, Aryung Kim, Ji Hoon Yu, Joo Weon Lim, Hyeyoung Kim

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Objective: To investigate whether glutamine deprivation induces expression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by determining NF-κB activity and levels of oxidative indices (ROS, reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; GSH, glutathione) in fibroblasts isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). Materials: We used A-T fibroblasts stably transfected with empty vector (Mock) or with human full-length ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cDNA (YZ5) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transiently transfected with ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with non-specific control siRNA. Treatment: The cells were cultured with or without glutamine or GSH. Methods: ROS levels were determined using a fluorescence reader and confocal microscopy. IL-8 or murine IL-8 homolog, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. GSH level was assessed by enzymatic assay, while IL-8 (KC) mRNA level was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. NF-κB DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Catalase activity and ATM protein levels were determined by O2 generation and Western blotting. Results: While glutamine deprivation induced IL-8 expression and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity in Mock cells, both processes were decreased by treatment of cells with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. Glutamine deprivation had no effect on IL-8 expression or NF-κB DNA-binding activity in YZ5 cells. Glutamine-deprived Mock cells had higher oxidative stress indices (increases in ROS and hydrogen peroxide, reduction in GSH) than glutamine-deprived YZ5 cells. In Mock cells, glutamine deprivation-induced oxidative stress indices were suppressed by treatment with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. GSH levels and catalase activity were lower in Mock cells than YZ5 cells. MEFs transfected with ATM siRNA and cultured without glutamine showed higher levels of ROS and IL-8 than those transfected with negative control siRNA; increased levels of ROS and IL-8 were suppressed by the treatment of glutamine. Conclusion: Glutamine deprivation induces ROS production, NF-κB activation, and IL-8 expression as well as a reduction in GSH in A-T fibroblasts, all of which are attenuated by glutamine supplementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-356
Number of pages10
JournalInflammation Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This work was supported by a Grant from the NRF of Korea funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (2007-0056092). H. Kim is grateful to the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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