Fully implantable and bioresorbable cardiac pacemakers without leads or batteries

Yeon Sik Choi, Rose T. Yin, Anna Pfenniger, Jahyun Koo, Raudel Avila, K. Benjamin Lee, Sheena W. Chen, Geumbee Lee, Gang Li, Yun Qiao, Alejandro Murillo-Berlioz, Alexi Kiss, Shuling Han, Seung Min Lee, Chenhang Li, Zhaoqian Xie, Yu Yu Chen, Amy Burrell, Beth Geist, Hyoyoung JeongJoohee Kim, Hong Joon Yoon, Anthony Banks, Seung Kyun Kang, Zheng Jenny Zhang, Chad R. Haney, Alan Varteres Sahakian, David Johnson, Tatiana Efimova, Yonggang Huang, Gregory D. Trachiotis, Bradley P. Knight, Rishi K. Arora, Igor R. Efimov, John A. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Citations (Scopus)


Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1228-1238
Number of pages11
JournalNature Biotechnology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering


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