Application of biodiesel synthesized from waste-based raw materials with numerous solvents (higher chain alcohols) in diesel engines is a topic of great interest. This article examines the effect of biodiesel–diesel–propanol ternary blends. Physio-chemical properties, fatty acids composition (FAC), FT–IR, TGA, DSC, NMR along with some selected engine and emissions performance parameters were examined. Biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil and exhibits excellent FAC that yields kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidation stability, higher heating value and iodine value of 3.93 mm2/s, 58.88, 7.43 h, 39.45 MJ/kg and 64.92 g/100 g. Propanol blended biodiesel depicted an affirmative improvement in cold flow properties and decremented density. FT–IR and NMR results confirms the existence of biodiesel–diesel–propanol and prove their qualities as reliable methods. DSC and TGA results confirm that propanol reduces the onset and crystallization temperatures of the blends. Engine and emissions performance revealed that propanol addition further increased brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and reduced carbon monoxide (CO), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke. This study proves the feasibility of the ternary blends with rewarding benefits in cold flow properties and densities besides acceptable engine and emissions performance results.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
First and second authors; Mr. Kamel Bencheikh and Dr. A.E. Atabani would like to sincerely thank Mr. M.N. Mohammed for arranging all work in Alternative Fuels Research Laboratory (AFRL) of Erciyes University, Turkey including biodiesel production and purification, blending, preparing and packing all samples. Thanks is also due to Mrs. Gediz Uğuz of Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey for arranging and processing FT-IR, GC, TGA, DSC and NMR analyses. We would like also to thank Dr. Sutha Shobana for her valuable contribution in further analyzing all data and improving the quality of all figures and level of presentation. Thanks is due to Dr. Gopalakrishnan Kumar and Dr. Awais Bokhari for all technical comments and guidance during this project. Finally, special thanks to Dr. Orhan Arpa and Dr. Abdulkadir Ayanoğlu for technical help during engine analyses.
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology