Formation of Bromate and Chlorate during Ozonation and Electrolysis in Seawater for Ballast Water Treatment

Youmi Jung, Eunkyung Hong, Yeojoon Yoon, Minhwan Kwon, Joon Wun Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Many effective technologies have been developed and approved for ballast water treatment, and the effectiveness of a process should be evaluated considering its environmental friendliness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the formation and formation mechanisms of bromate (BrO3) and chlorate (ClO3) in seawater during ozonation, electrolysis, and a combined (ozonation/electrolysis) process. In seawater ozonation, BrO3 was generated exceeding a 5 mg/L ozone dose despite the high Br (65 mg/L). The formation of BrO3 and ClO3 by electrolysis depended on the electrode materials where two types of electrodes (IrO2/Ti and Pt/Ti) were used. The combined (ozonation/electrolysis) process generated much higher levels of BrO3 and ClO3 than either individual process. In ozonation or electrolysis, mixed oxidant including HOCl/OCl and HOBr/OBr is the main parameter for inactivation, which is called total residual oxidant, TRO. In this study, a predictive model for BrO3 and ClO3 was suggested in terms of TRO formation. This predictive model can recommend allowable TRO (generated by ozonation or electrolysis) for practical applications in seawater treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-525
Number of pages11
JournalOzone: Science and Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (2013R1A2A2A05006466) and Korea Ministry of Education (MOE) as “BK21 PLUS Project.”

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014, Copyright © 2014 International Ozone Association.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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