We argue that the influence of presumed influence (IPI) model (Gunther & Storey, 2003) should be extended through an additional interaction term between the presumed effects of media on “others” (PME3) and the “self” (PME1). Doing so would enable testing of whether individuals who perceive a mutually shared influence of the media show stronger support for censorship. The IPI model does not suffer from the methodological limitations of the conventional third-person effect literature relying on other–self disparities (i.e., PME3–PME1), but it focuses entirely on the main effect of PME3; thus, insufficient attention is paid to the role of PME1 in explaining the influence of presumed influence. To validate this Extended IPI model, and determine how it compares with other models, we compared individuals’ presumptions about the effects of fake news on others (PFNE3) and themselves (PFNE1), and how PFNE3 and PFNE1 interact to influence individuals’ support for policies prohibiting the potential negative effects of fake news. We found that individuals’ support for government interventions and sanctions for fake news creators and sharers was stronger if they believed that fake news influenced both other people and themselves. The theoretical and methodological implications of the Extended IPI model are discussed.
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