Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA: Application for the use of abacavir and rilpivirine as the first-line regimen for HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings

Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, David Boettiger, Oon Tek Ng, Nguyen Kinh, Tuti Parwati Merati, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Wing Wai Wong, Man Po Lee, Romanee Chaiwarith, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Pacharee Kantipong, Fujie J. Zhang, Jun Yong Choi, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Rossana Ditangco, Do Duy Cuong, Shinichi Oka, Benedict Lim Heng Sim, Winai Ratanasuwan, Penh Sun LyEvy Yunihastuti, Sanjay Pujari, Jeremy L. Ross, Matthew Law, Somnuek Sungkanuparph, V. Khol, H. X. Zhao, N. Han, P. C.K. Li, W. Lam, Y. T. Chan, S. Saghayam, C. Ezhilarasi, K. Joshi, S. Gaikwad, A. Chitalikar, D. N. Wirawan, F. Yuliana, D. Imran, A. Widhani, J. Tanuma, T. Nishijima, S. Na, J. M. Kim, Y. M. Gani, R. David, S. F. Syed Omar, S. Ponnampalavanar, I. Azwa, E. Uy, R. Bantique, W. W. Ku, P. C. Wu, P. L. Lim, L. S. Lee, P. S. Ohnmar, S. Gatechompol, P. Phanuphak, C. Phadungphon, L. Chumla, N. Sanmeema, T. Sirisanthana, W. Kotarathititum, J. Praparattanapan, P. Kambua, R. Sriondee, K. V. Nguyen, H. V. Bui, D. T.H. Nguyen, N. V. An, N. T. Luan, A. H. Sohn, B. Petersen, D. A. Cooper, A. Jiamsakul

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Abacavir and rilpivirine are alternative antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. However, both drugs are only recommended for the patients who have pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL. In resource-limited settings, pre-treatment HIV RNA is not routinely performed and not widely available. The aims of this study are to determine factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL and to construct a model to predict this outcome. Methods: HIV-infected adults enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database were eligible if they had an HIV RNA measurement documented at the time of ART initiation. The dataset was randomly split into a derivation data set (75% of patients) and a validation data set (25%). Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for study site. A prediction model and prediction scores were created. Results: A total of 2592 patients were enrolled for the analysis. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 35.8 (29.9-42.5) years; CD4 count was 147 (50-248) cells/mm3; and pre-treatment HIV RNA was 100,000 (34,045-301,075) copies/mL. Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were age <30 years [OR 1.40 vs. 41-50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.80, p = 0.01], body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR 2.4 vs. <18.5 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.1-5.1, p = 0.02), anemia (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.40-2.10, p < 0.01), CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 (OR 3.9 vs. <100 cells/mm3; 95% CI 2.0-4.1, p < 0.01), total lymphocyte count >2000 cells/mm3 (OR 1.7 vs. <1000 cells/mm3; 95% CI 1.3-2.3, p < 0.01), and no prior AIDS-defining illness (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.5-2.3, p < 0.01). Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis yielded area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.67-0.72) among derivation patients and 0.69 (95% CI 0.65-0.74) among validation patients. A cut off score >25 yielded the sensitivity of 46.7%, specificity of 79.1%, positive predictive value of 67.7%, and negative predictive value of 61.2% for prediction of pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL among derivation patients. Conclusion: A model prediction for pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL produced an area under the ROC curve of 0.70. A larger sample size for prediction model development as well as for model validation is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27
JournalAIDS Research and Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 5

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database is an initiative of TREAT Asia, a program of amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, with support from the US National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, as part of the Inter‑ national Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA; U01AI069907). The Kirby Institute is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, and is affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Australia. The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of any of the governments or institutions mentioned above.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Virology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA: Application for the use of abacavir and rilpivirine as the first-line regimen for HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this