The aim of this study was to analyze factors affecting treatment times in patients treated with the surgery-first approach (SFA) for orthognathic surgery. Fifty skeletal class III patients who had undergone SFA bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were enrolled. Retrospective chart reviews and analysis of 3D CT and digitally scanned casts were conducted to assess the total treatment time. Statistical analysis was then performed with multiple study variables. Longer treatment times were required for patients with severe maxillary or mandibular teeth crowding (p = 0.009), a preoperative anterior open bite (p = 0.021), and those undergoing orthodontic extractions (p < 0.001). Longer treatment times were also observed when setting surgical occlusion in the postoperative anterior open bite (p = 0.007) and in patients with postoperative dental midline deviation (p < 0.001) and transverse maxillary deficiencies (p = 0.035). Treatment times were shorter when a class I molar key was formed in the surgical occlusion setup (p = 0.002) and in bilateral anterior and posterior occlusion with a minimum of four contact points (p < 0.001). The number of contact points, the number of extracted teeth, and postoperative midline deviation were identified as significant predictors. These results suggest that proper patient selection is important when considering SFA and that surgeons can reduce total treatment time with an appropriate surgical occlusion setup.
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