Extended energy conservation law in alloys: The absence of energy non-equilibrium

Myung Sik Choi, Han Gil Na, Changhyun Jin, Kyu Hyoung Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Assuming that many of the materials produced in a non-equilibrium state remain unchanged, an extended space-energy conservation law was proposed based on the existing energy conservation law. In the present study, by analyzing the well developed equilibrium binary phase diagram of iron (Fe) - carbon (C), we show that energy non-equilibrium microstructures can appear as a part of the equilibrium between the space energy and the mass energy. The correlation between these two energies is objectively and logically explained via (1) one-to-one correspondences between the equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases based on the binary Fe-C phase diagram and (2) the heat-treated Fe-C phases with the spatial energy represented by temperature. Additionally, we found that the morphological and microstructural changes in non-equilibrium states could be consistently explained using the extended energy law as a major premise. This suggests that material factors such as size, distribution, and the shape of materials, which appear to have no energy transfer, are all formed to balance the energy equilibrium with the spatial energy surrounding the materials. Thus, an extended energy conservation law, which can control mass through space or vice versa, can provide a comprehensive logical framework for analyzing various unsolved physicochemical phenomena.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-572
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Korean Institute of Metals and Materials
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2020R1I1A1A01067825 and NRF-2019R1A6A1A11055660). We are grateful to Jiye Kim, Mun Young Koh, Baro Jin, Ha Jin Na, and Koh Eun Na for their cordiality and hospitality during the course of this research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys


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