Evolution of surface characteristics in material removal simulation with sub-aperture tools

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Over the last decade, we have witnessed that the fabrication of 200-2000 mm scale have received relatively little attention from the fabrication technology development, compared to those of smaller than 200 mm and of larger than 2000 mm in diameter. As a result, the optical surfaces of these scales are still predominantly completed by small optics shops where opticians apply the traditional technique for polishing. Lack of tools in aiding opticians for planning, executing and analyzing their polishing work is a root cause for long and, sometimes, unpredictable delivery and high manufacturing cost for such optical surfaces. We present the on-going development of a software simulation environment called Surface Analysis and Fabrication Environment (SAFE). It is primarily intended to increase the throughput of polishing and testing cycles by allowing opticians to simulate the resulting surface form and roughness with input polishing variables. A brief review of current polishing techniques and their target optics clarifies the need for such simulation tool. This is followed by the development targets and a preliminary simulation plan using the developmental version of SAFE. Among many polishing variables, two removal assumptions and three different types of removal functions were used for the polishing simulation presented. The simulations show that the Gaussian removal function with the proportional removal assumption resulted in the fastest, though marginal, convergence to a super-polished surface of 0.56 micron Peat-to-Valley in form accuracy and of 0.02 nanometer in surface roughness Ra. Other meaningful results and their implications are also presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-119
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2002
EventLarge Lenses and Prisms - London, United Kingdom
Duration: 2001 Mar 272001 Mar 30

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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