β-Galactosyl-trehalose oligosaccharides (β-GTOs) were enzymatically prepared as a mixture of 6-β-galactosyl-trehalose (1) and 4-β-galactosyl-trehalose (2) with a 9:1 ratio (w/w). The β-GTO mixture showed a highly enhanced hygroscopicity as compared to those of trehalose and other sugars used. At 72 h of incubation under 90% relative humidity and room temperature, it had a large increase in weight due to its moisture absorption, which was five times larger than that of trehalose, 1.9 times larger than that of sucrose, and 1.5 times larger than that of maltotriose. It was very effective in the growth promotion of Bifidobacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum, which was better than the growth promotion in the cases of trehalose and galactooligosaccharide. It also showed a highly anticariogenic property; it had only 10% cell proliferation of Streptococcus sobrinus for that of the sucrose control and 60% inhibition of insoluble glucan synthesis. Its effectiveness of inhibition was two and 1.5 times better than that of trehalose and one and two times than xylitol, respectively, against cell growth and glucan synthesis. Conclusively, the functionality of the β-GTO in terms of hygroscopicity, bifidogenicity, and anticariogenicity was considerably improved as compared to that of trehalose. It is thus suggested that the β-GTO might be applied as an effective humectant and prebiotic substitute with enhanced noncariogenicity in food applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the financial support of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and FEDER (DADDi2 project TEC2013-48506-C3 ), and the CNRS/CSIC agreement program (2012). R. W. Verjulio thanks MINECO for the fellowship. The authors would also like to acknowledge Tokuyama Corporation for supplying membrane materials.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)