Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease mode,,,l

Yeonsu Oh, Jaehun Lee, Hyeon Cheol Kim, Tae Wook Hahn, Byung Il Yoon, Jeong Hee Han, Yong Soo Kwon, Joung Jun Park, Deog Bon Koo, Ki Jong Rhee, Bae Dong Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-419
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of veterinary science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Bio-industry Technology Development Program (grant No. 112130-3) funded by the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of the Republic of Korea, and by a 2014 Research Grant from Kangwon National University and technical support from the Institute of Veterinary Medicine in Kangwon National University, Korea.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science. All Rights Reserved

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • veterinary(all)


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