Enhancement of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions of red ginseng extract by fermentation

Hyun Joo Jung, Hojin Choi, Hye Won Lim, Daehyun Shin, Hacksoo Kim, Bin Kwon, Jong Eun Lee, Eun Hee Park, Chang Jin Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives This work aimed to compare some pharmacological properties of red ginseng extract (RG) and fermented red ginseng extract (FRG). Methods Antinociceptive activity was analysed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the air pouch, and analysed through the measurement of nitrite content in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells. Anti-angiogenic activity was determined using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Key findings In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of FRG was stronger than that of RG in two animal models, vascular permeability and air-pouch models. In the vascular permeability model, the doses of RG and FRG required for half-maximal inhibition (IC50) were 181 and 59 mg/kg, respectively. FRG exhibited significantly stronger antinociceptive activity than RG. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, the IC50 values of RG and FRG were 153 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. Although both RG and FRG were able to suppress production of nitric oxide in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, the suppressive activity of FRG appeared to be stronger than that of RG. However, RG and FRG showed similar anti-angiogenic activity. Conclusions FRG possesses enhanced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity but similar anti-angiogenic activity than RG.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)756-762
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2012 May

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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