Energy retrofit of PCM-applied apartment buildings considering building orientation and height

Ji Hun Park, Umberto Berardi, Seong Jin Chang, Seunghwan Wi, Yujin Kang, Sumin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


This study analyzed the building energy performance of apartment buildings using retrofit systems with phase change materials (PCMs). The apartment type, building orientation, and height are considered to evaluate the implementation of an innovative PCM system. The building models selected were a flat-type apartment and tower-type apartment. According to the results, building orientation, height floor, and climate factors have a complex correlation with each other. Depending on the solar characteristics, solar altitude, solar time, wind direction, and wind speed, the suitable Building orientation and height for energy reduction of buildings vary. Such parameters also affect to the suitable PCM application for energy savings. As a result, PCMs of 20 °C and 26 °C showed to be suitable for the flat-type apartments with a southward orientation a westward orientation, respectively. Tower-type apartment with eastward and southward orientation showed the highest energy saving with PCM of 24 °C; the units with westward and northward orientation showed the highest energy reduction at 23 °C. Since the PCM efficiency for the energy savings are different depending on building orientations, heights, and climate factors, such variables are necessary to consider for the PCM application to the apartment building.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119877
Publication statusPublished - 2021 May 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning ( KETEP ) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy ( MOTIE ) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20202020800030 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Pollution
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Energy(all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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