The demand for electric vehicles has significantly increased owing to problems related to global energy and the environment. Therefore, electric vehicle routing problems have recently gained considerable attention. Previous studies on electric vehicle routing problems have assumed constant battery charging and discharging rates. However, in reality, the charging and discharging rates are affected by the state of charge. This study investigates an electric vehicle routing problem considering nonlinear charging and discharging functions, wherein the charging and discharging rates depend upon the state of charge. The effect of the state-of-charge-dependent characteristics was investigated, and a nonlinear discharging function was developed. Additionally, a mixed-integer linear programming model was developed, and an efficient algorithm was proposed. The experimental results demonstrated that neglecting the effect of the state of charge might result in infeasible or inferior solutions. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated the change in optimal charging behavior depending upon the type of charging stations and the order of visits.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) [ NRF-2020R1A2C1005489 ].
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Building and Construction
- Environmental Science(all)
- Strategy and Management
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering