Encystation of Giardia lamblia by high bile and alkaline pH and its ultrastructural changes during encystation

Tai Soon Yong, Hye Won Yang, Kyung Il Im, Soon Jung Park

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Giardia lamblia, a human pathogen causing outbreaks of diarrhea, recently became a focus of great concerns in the fields of both medical and environmental microbiology. To develop the experimental tools to study giardiasis, encystation, one of the major processes in its life cycle, was reconstituted by inducing an axenic culture of a flagellated form of G. lamblia into a cyst form under high concentration of bile and alkaline pH condition. The successful induction was confirmed by Northern analysis of resulting increased expression of the CWP1 gene encoding the cyst wall protein 1. An examination of the encystation process with SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) revealed that the trophozoite, a flagellate with a bilateral symmetry, was transformed to a cyst form with an oval-shape and defined filamentous wall. The encystation was found to cause a disappearance of the flagella and an invagination of the adhesive disc. An extensive formation of rER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) was observed after 24 h of induction, indicating an active synthesis and export of proteins during this process. The vital staining of the in vitro- induced cysts showed that most cysts maintained their viability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-433
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of microbiology and biotechnology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2000 Jun

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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