Enamel demineralization resistance and remineralization by various fluoride-releasing dental restorative materials

Min Ji Kim, Myung Jin Lee, Kwang Mahn Kim, Song Yi Yang, Ji Young Seo, Sung Hwan Choi, Jae Sung Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to investigate the resistance of various fluoride-releasing restorative materials against the demineralization and remineralization of enamel surfaces, including those that have been recently introduced to the market. Three different fluoride-releasing restorative materials were considered: glass ionomer (FI), resin-modified glass ionomer (RL), and an alkasite restorative material (CN). The acid neutralization ability was investigated using pH measurement, and the concentrations of released fluoride and calcium ions were measured. Finally, the deminer-alization resistance and remineralization effects of enamel were observed using a microhardness tester and SEM. CN showed an initial substantial increase in pH followed by a steady increase, with values higher than those of the other groups (p < 0.05). All three groups released fluoride ions, and the CN group released more calcium ions than the other groups (p < 0.05). In the acid resistance test, from the microhardness and SEM images, the CN group showed effective resistance to demineral-ization. In the remineralization test, the microhardness results showed that the FI and CN groups recovered the microhardness from the values of the demineralized enamel surface (p < 0.05). This was confirmed by the SEM images from remineralization tests; the CN group showed a recovered demineralized surface when immersed in artificial saliva for 7 days. In conclusion, alkasite restorative material can be an effective material when used in cariogenic environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4554
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug 2

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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