In this study, we evaluated the effects of ultraviolet (UV) treatment and alendronate (ALN) immersion on the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) cultured on titanium surfaces. MG-63 cells were used for sandblasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces, and HGFs were used for machined (MA) titanium surfaces. SLA and MA specimens were subdivided into four groups (n = 12) according to the combination of surface treatments (UV treatment and/or ALN immersion) applied. After culturing MG-63 cells and HGFs on titanium discs, cellular morphology, proliferation, and differentiation were evaluated. The results revealed that UV treatment of titanium surfaces did not alter the proliferation of MG-63 cells; however, HGF differentiation and adhesion were increased in response to UV treatment. In contrast, ALN immersion of titanium discs reduced MG-63 cell proliferation and changed HGFs into a more atrophic form. Simultaneous application of UV treatment and ALN immersion induced greater differentiation of MG-63 cells. Within the limitations of this cellular level study, simultaneous application of UV treatment and ALN immersion of titanium surfaces was shown to improve the osseointegration of titanium implants; in addition, UV treatment may be used to enhance mucosal sealing of titanium abutments.
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