Effect Symmetry of Benefit Criteria in Postpurchase Evaluations

Dong Jin Lee, Grace B. Yu, Dwight R. Merunka, Michael Bosnjak, M. Joseph Sirgy, J. S. Johar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This research proposes a theoretical model of postpurchase evaluations that incorporates seven sets of benefits: functional, symbolic, economic, safety, hedonic, moral, and leisure benefits. These benefit criteria are well documented in the literature. The study reported here was designed to test the effect symmetry of these benefit criteria in postpurchase evaluations. Effect symmetry refers to whether increases in a benefit are likely to cause proportional increases in postpurchase evaluations. The study tested the hypothesis that "must-have" benefits (functional, economic, and safety benefits) are negatively asymmetric, whereas the "nice-to-have" benefits (symbolic, hedonic, moral, and leisure benefits) are positively symmetric. Five surveys were conducted in relation to five product categories in four countries (computers and automobiles in the United States, banks in France, housing in Korea, and leisure travel in Germany). Respondents completed 2386 questionnaires, of which 2291 were used in the statistical analysis. With respect to effect symmetry, the results indicate that the criterion of functional benefits is negatively asymmetric in predicting postpurchase evaluations, whereas symbolic and moral benefits are positively asymmetric. Hedonic and leisure benefits are symmetric. Managerial implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)651-669
Number of pages19
JournalPsychology and Marketing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology
  • Marketing


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