Effect of surface states on monolayer doping: Crystal orientations, crystallinities, and surface defects

Chul Jin Park, Sang Min Jung, Jin Hwan Kim, Il To Kim, Moo Whan Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Monolayer doping (MLD) has been regarded as the most suitable doping method for future semiconductor devices. MLD based on surface functionalization can be seriously affected by the surface states, including the orientations, crystallinities, and defects. We report for the first time the effect of surface states on boron-MLD (B-MLD) process and discuss the applicability of MLD for a fin structures. Depending on the surface states, the monolayer formation reaction is restricted, which causes more than five-fold differences in the doping level. Therefore, the surface states should be gravely considered before applying MLD and are crucial constraints in the MLD process on non-planar structures that have different surface states depending on its structural position. The B-MLD process on as-cleaned (100) and (110) silicon surfaces provides doping levels of 4.69 × 1020 and 2.48 × 1020 atoms/cm3, respectively. The MLD efficiency on the (110) orientation is degraded by insufficient reaction sites for the hydrosilylation reaction on the monohydride-terminated (110) silicon surface. Additionally, the surface damage interrupts the formation of a dopant-containing monolayer, causing a poor doping level and dose uniformity. Our research provides new insights into the development of wet-chemical doping methods for non-planar devices by studying the effect of surface states on MLD efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-74
Number of pages8
JournalMaterials Science in Semiconductor Processing
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Aug 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ICT Consilience Creative Program ( IITP-2017-2017-0-01015 ) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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