Effect of root and bone morphology on the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament

Kwangchul Choy, Eung Kwon Pae, Youngchel Park, Kyung Ho Kim, Charles J. Burstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


To achieve predictable and physiologic orthodontic tooth movement, estimating the axis of rotation of a tooth and the level and location of maximum stress distributed in the periodontal ligament is essential. An extracted upper canine was scanned into a computer 2-dimensionally and divided into 80 nodes along the long axis of the tooth. A mathematical formula was derived, and stress was calculated on each node. The purpose of this study was to reveal the center of resistance, axis of rotation, and an ideal force magnitude associated with various periodontal conditions, such as potential root resorption, alveolar bone loss, and varying anatomic root shape by analyzing the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament. The study demonstrates that the location of center of resistance changes significantly with variation of shape and length of the root embedded in alveolar bone. In contrast, in response to alveolar bone loss, the relative location of the center of resistance to total root length remains constant. Analysis of the stress distribution pattern in our 2-dimensional model reveals that the relationship between location of force and axis of rotation is determined by s(2) (that is) a constant depends on shape and length of a root in alveolar bone. Tapered and short roots that result from alveolar bone loss or apical root resorption are prone to tipping. The optimal orthodontic force may vary depending on the maximum stress in the periodontal ligament.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthodontics


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