Ankylosis of a molar during active growth leads to a significant vertical bone defect, extrusion of the opposing molar, and inclination of adjacent teeth. Treatment timing is an essential factor for the patient's quality of life. Early extraction of the ankylosed molar and protraction of the second molar is challenging because of the difficulty of tooth movement and the uncertainty of the normal eruption of the third molar. In view of the uncertainty of eruption of the mandibular third molar, it is essential to assess the potential for eruption according to the developmental stage of the third molar and to secure sufficient space for eruption. In this case report, a girl with an ankylosed right mandibular first molar and an advanced vertical bone defect was treated via early extraction of the ankylosed molar along with the intrusion of the maxillary molar and mesial root movement of the second molar before the initiation of third molar root formation. Restoration of the vertical bone defect was noted at the end of treatment. In addition, spontaneous eruption of the third molar was observed, which was in contrast to the mesioangular impaction of the contralateral third molar. This case emphasizes the importance of treatment timing to increase the chance of utilization of the third molar.
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