Direct visualization of large-area graphene domains and boundaries by optical birefringency

Dae Woo Kim, Yun Ho Kim, Hyeon Su Jeong, Hee Tae Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

216 Citations (Scopus)


The boundaries between domains in single-layer graphene1-4 strongly influence its electronic properties5-12. However, existing approaches for domain visualization, which are based on microscopy and spectroscopy2,12-16, are only effective for domains that are less than a few micrometres in size. Here, we report a simple method for the visualization of arbitrarily large graphene domains by imaging the birefringence of a graphene surface covered with nematic liquid crystals. The method relies on a correspondence between the orientation of the liquid crystal and that of the underlying graphene, which we use to determine the boundaries of macroscopic domains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-34
Number of pages6
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Laboratory Program (R0A-2007-000-20037-0, NRF), World Class University Program (R32-2008-000-10142-0, NRF), and the Global Frontier Research Center for Advanced Soft Electronics. The authors especially appreciate helpful discussions with Prof. Mohan Srinivasarao.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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