Background: Peripheral inflammation-triggered mild neuroinflammation impacts the brain and behavior through microglial activa-tion. In this study, we performed an unbiased analysis of the vulnerability of different brain areas to neuroinflammation induced by systemic inflammation. Methods: We injected mice with a single low dose of LPS to induce mild inflammation and then analyzed microglial activation in 34 brain regions by immunohistochemical methods and whole-brain imaging using multi-slide scanning microscopy. We also conducted quantitative RT-PCR to measure the levels of inflammatory cytokines in selected brain regions of interest. Results: We found that microglia in different brain regions are differentially activated by mild, LPS-induced inflammation relative to the increase in microglia numbers or increased CD68 expression. The increased number of microglia induced by mild inflammation was not attributable to infiltration of peripheral immune cells. In addition, microglia residing in brain regions, in which a single low-dose injection of LPS produced microglial changes, preferentially generated pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mild neuroinflammation induces regionally different microglia activation, producing proinflammatory cytokines. Our observations provide insight into induction of possible region-specific neuroinflammation-associated brain pathologies through microglial activation.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Inflammation Research|
|Publication status||Published - 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and Future Planning (2019R1A2C1086048 to J.W.U. and 2020R1A4A1019009 to E.C., Y.M.H., J.W.Y., and J.W.U.), the DGIST R&D Program of the Ministry of Science and ICT (22-CoE-BT-01, 22-HRHR-01 to J.W.U.).
© 2022 Jung et al.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy