We aimed to use deep learning to detect tuberculosis in chest radiographs in annual workers’ health examination data and compare the performances of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based on images only (I-CNN) and CNNs including demographic variables (D-CNN). The I-CNN and D-CNN models were trained on 1000 chest X-ray images, both positive and negative, for tuberculosis. Feature extraction was conducted using VGG19, InceptionV3, ResNet50, DenseNet121, and InceptionResNetV2. Age, weight, height, and gender were recorded as demographic variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was calculated for model comparison. The AUC values of the D-CNN models were greater than that of I-CNN. The AUC values for VGG19 increased by 0.0144 (0.957 to 0.9714) in the training set, and by 0.0138 (0.9075 to 0.9213) in the test set (both p < 0.05). The D-CNN models show greater sensitivity than I-CNN models (0.815 vs. 0.775, respectively) at the same cut-off point for the same specificity of 0.962. The sensitivity of D-CNN does not attenuate as much as that of I-CNN, even when specificity is increased by cut-off points. Conclusion: Our results indicate that machine learning can facilitate the detection of tuberculosis in chest X-rays, and demographic factors can improve this process.
|Journal||International journal of environmental research and public health|
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Jan 2|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis