Dark fermentation: Production and utilization of volatile fatty acid from different wastes- A review

Ashutosh Kumar Pandey, S. Pilli, P. Bhunia, R. D. Tyagi, Rao Y. Surampalli, Tian C. Zhang, Sang Hyoun Kim, Ashok Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are the building blocks of the chemical industry, and they are the primary contributors to the planet's organic carbon cycle. VFA production from fossil fuels (mostly petroleum) is unsustainable, pollutes the environment, and generates greenhouse gases. As a result of these issues, there is a pressing need to develop alternate sources for the long-term generation of VFAs via anaerobic digestion. The accessible feedstocks for its sustainable production, as well as the influencing parameters, are discussed in this review. The use of VFAs as a raw material to make a variety of consumer products is reviewed in order to find a solution. It also bridges the gap between traditional and advanced VFA production and utilization methods from a variety of solid and liquid waste sources for economical stability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number132444
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government ( Ministry of Science & ICT ) (No. NRF-2019M3E6A1103839 , 2020R1A2B5B02001757 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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